Welcome to the master of Nanoscale Engineering of lyon Retour à l'université de Lyon

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This course is made of two subcourses :
  • Biosensors and Biochips
  • Tissue and cell engineering

Biosensors and Biochips (UE S3-6)

This course introduces the main concepts related to the design, the fabrication and the utilization of microsystems for molecular analysis in complex environments, liquid or gaseous. Such systems include sensors and biosensors, i.e., systems for the detection of certain chemical species, as well as biochips, which are devices for simultaneous multi-factor analysis,
The course shows how the fundamental notions in the relevant scientific domains (physical chemistry of interfaces, biochemistry, physical measruements, ...) have to be articulated in a coherent way, from the conception of biochips and their fabrication, to the interpretation of the resulting data, in order to achieve an analytical performance that is best adapted to the issue under investigation. We will discuss examples from the domain of academic research as well as commercialized systems, for applications related to health and environment.

Outline of Biosensors and Biochips

  • Cemical sensors and microsensors
    • Electrochemical sensors: voltammetry, amperometry, conductometry
    • Principles of solid-state chemical microsensors
    • Microsensors for ions (ISFET)
    • Gas sensors (GASFET) and other sensors

  • Biosensors
    • Structure of biosensors
    • Types of bioreceptors (enzymes, immunological receptors, nucleic acids, others)
    • Types of signal transduction (optical, mass transport, electrical, electrochemical)

  • Biochips
    • Classification of biochips
    • Design methodologies and tools
    • Fabrication methods
    • Chemical and biological functionalization of surfaces
    • Analysis methods: genotyping/mutations, gene expression, proteomics
    • Fluorescence analysis on biochips

  • Examples of applications
    • Medical diagnostics
    • Environmental diagnostics
    • Analysis of the transcriptome

Tissue and Cell Engineering (UE S3-12)

This course explores life on the nanometer scale. The two aspects of nanotechnology in life sciences are discussed:
  • fundamental research ­– probing the properties of cells on increasingly smaller length scales, cellular biomechanics
  • biomedical applications – novel nanostructured biomaterials, fine-tuned to modulate the cellular response

Outline of Tissue and Cell Engineering

  • Cellular structure and function
    • The cellular architecture
      membrane, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, adhesion proteins (cell/cell and cell/substrate)
    • Principal mechanics of the cell
      division (mitosis), movement (immune response, development, regeneration), cohesion and preservation of tissue
    • The cell as an integrated multi-sensor
      membrane receptors for chemical signals (endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis), mechanical stimuli (blood flow, compression, cell/cell interaction), topological stimuli and the extracellular network (proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation)

  • Bio-, micro-, and nanotechnolgy to study the mechanical properties of cells
    • Stress and deformation, cellular rheology
      extensional rheometry, optical and magnetic tweezers, Brownian motion, aspiration into mircopipettes
    • Measuring cellular adhesion
      ablation experiments, milli- and microfluidic flow chambers, atomic force microscopy (AFM)
    • Hydrodynamic properties and capillary forces in cellular aggregates
      determination of cellular contractility, deformable substrates, utilization of physical forces (hydrodynamic, magnetic, ...) to counteract motion, contractile drugs, visulaization of mechanotransducer-complexes by fluorescence microscopy

  • Supports and 2D/3D matrices for tissue engineering
    • Bulk biomaterials and artificial tissue
    • Nanostructured materials, adhesive templates, and microfluidic devices
    • Intelligent scaffolds
    • Application examples and case studies

course volume

  • lectures/tutorials:  60
  • ECTS: 6